Satoshi.radio.br proposes much more interesting alternatives for communicating and sending cryptocurrencies over continental distances, This, without compromising their security and anonymity. The motivation is behind the idea that, although the internet can and is being controlled and censored, it is not the only tool to be employed in sending Bitcoin transactions and communications from one side of the globe to another on the planet.
In the English literature, which has also become known in German-speaking countries, it was always assumed that the first EME was done in the USA. But according to reports by Dr. Ing. W. Stepp in the "Der Seewart" magazine, it seems that already in 1943, during experiments with radio measurement equipment, (radar) reflections of the moon were received and recognized as such. Since so far nothing was published about this in cq-DL, the report by Dr. Stepp is presented here as a preamble to the activities of German VHF amateurs. It has been translated into English by Pieter-Tjerk de Boer, A.K.A PA3FWM.
Dr. Stepp writes:
In 1943 Telefunken had taken up the task of developing radio measuring equipment for detecting and surveying targets near ground -- ships, low-flying aircraft, cars -- with as large a range as possible. The task of locating near-ground targets especially required, besides high power and high receiver sensitivity, wavelengths as short as possible. A setup with the following parameters was developed, matching the possibilities of that time: Transmitter impulse power 120 kW ; Impulse duration 1.5 µs ; Wavelength 53 cm, about 564 MHz ; RX sensitivity 12 kTo ; Antenna surface 45 m2 ; Polarization horizontal ; Number of dipoles 8 per row horiz., 80 per column vert. [Translator's note: presumably the 12 kTo sensitivity means the receiver's own noise is 12 times thermal noise (Boltzmann's constant k times absolute temperature To), which is equivalent to a noise figure of 11 dB.]
The antenna could be rotated around its vertical axis. It was strongly focused vertically with the first nulls 1.3° away from the horizontal main lobe. The device was given the name "Würzmann". For testing, the system was set up in late 1943 on the Bakenberg on the south of the island of Rügen. The measurement results confirmed the calculated ranges: ships of average size were detected up to the horizon, about 50 km, and airplanes till 1000 m high up to distances of about 100 km. But with favorable weather conditions the system detected targets in the harbour of Gdansk and the Gulf of Finland.
After the first tests I assigned Willi Thiel, one of the very competent engineers, to take care of the equipment on his own and continuously perform observations. Some weeks later I again travelled to the Rügen island for experiments near Göhren. On the last day of the experiments, just a few hours before leaving back to Berlin, I visited the Bakenberg again. The sky was very dull, the night very dark. On the way to the Bakenberg W. Thiel reported about a "strange equipment perturbation", which he had observed on the previous day at approximately the same time, but of which he had not been able to find the cause; however, it had become less after about two hours despite him not fixing it, and in the end had disappeared completely.
After activating the Würzmann, I made the following observation: the "perturbation" again appeared, had a duration of several impulses, and larger impulse strength than the strongest nearby targets. It didn't appear until about two seconds after switching on the transmitter and disappeared (pulsatingly) correspondingly later after switching it off. But the rest of the echo image appeared and disappeared at the instance of switching the transmitter on/off. The "perturbation" only occurred when the antenna was aimed to the east, and it disappeared immediately upon a major change of direction, but reappeared only about two seconds after rotating back to the original direction. Apparently we had detected the rising moon behind the clouds with the equipment. I explained the gradual disappearance of the impulses by the reflecting body slowly moving out of the strongly focussed, horizontally aimed beam, as it rises above the horizon. Soon after this, the equipment was put into regular use, and I haven't heard about further observations.
It was not until the close of World War II, however, that techniques specifically intended for the purpose of bouncing radar waves off the moon to demonstrate their potential use in defense, communication, and radar astronomy were developed. The first successful attempt was carried out at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey on January 10, 1946 by a group code-named Project Diana, headed by John H. DeWitt. It was followed less than a month later, on February 6, 1946, by a second successful attempt, by a Hungarian group led by Zoltán Bay. The Communication Moon Relay project that followed led to more practical uses, including a teletype link between the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and United States Navy headquarters in Washington, D.C. In the days before communications satellites, a link free of the vagaries of ionospheric propagation was revolutionary.
The development of communication satellites in the 1960s made this technique obsolete. However radio amateurs took up EME communication as a hobby; the first amateur radio moonbounce communication took place in 1953, and amateurs worldwide still use the technique.
Bitcoiners, developers and amateur radio enthusiasts, Márcio Gandra, Rafael Silveira, Narcélio Filho, André Alvarenga and Paulo Jr. carried out an unusual experiment from April 24 to 29th. They retransmitted, in morse code, the decimal hexa of a PSBT file, of a multi-signed Bitcoin transaction, to be signed in another state of the country and replicated on the network to be mined. Until then, it would have been just a common long-distance radio transmission, if it weren't for one particular feature: the data would have hit the lunar surface and be refracted back to earth. Technique known in amateur radio as E.M.E (Earth – Moon – Earth) or “Moon Bounce”.
The date chosen for the event took into account an event that occurs only twice a year, “Lua Rosa”, a time when it is closer to the earth, favoring the success of the technique. For the emission, high-power radios with linear amplifier were used, in addition to directional antennas with high sensitivity and gain. The transaction sent from P2P André Alvarenga to Narcélio Filho needed 2 signatures to be completed, the two signatories of the transaction: Rafael Silveira and Paulo Jr. were more than 600km away, making direct transmission in a straight line impossible with the equipment used, but totally possible if they had the lunar star as a “mirror”.
The experiment was part of 2 projects: The launch of the Satoshi.radio.br project, a group of radio amateurs located in several cities around the world that will serve as 'listeners & broadcasters' of bitcoin transactions via radio, as a way to increase freedom and face up to the control and censorship we live in today. According to the project's creators, Márcio Gandra and Rafael Oliveira, the LABS, as the participants are called (acronym for listeners and broadcasters), will use their own software that will identify bitcoin transactions, convert them and replicate them on the network automatically. All registered amateur radio with knowledge of cryptocurrencies will be able to join the project on a voluntary and non-profit basis, which is supported by donations from its members and future participants. The group also intends to create an NFT with the audios and files from this historical record as part of the financing for the acquisition of larger and more powerful structures to expand the Satoshi.Radio.br project.
It took 3 months of intense preparation to accomplish the feat. From testing and obtaining the license for amateur radio, through studies of electronics, radio waves, acquisition of equipment, construction of antennas, to encoding, decoding, reception and transmission in morse code, in an experiment known as "Moon Bouce" or Lunar reflection.
The transaction was sent from Belo Horizonte to the city of Macacos-MG, where it received the first signature and then was heard in São Paulo state, more than 600km away from the place of origin. With the audio file in hand, it was possible to recode morse to hexadecimal, then from hex to binary again, and process the PSBT file in the electrum wallet, closing the last outstanding subscription, all using free online software.
In addition, the group did a second broadcast playing the lunar solo teasing Elon Musk, where it was said: "Elon, we did it first!" to show that you don't have to be some eccentric billionaire to push the boundaries of the earth in search of freedom.
Legal doubts : Bitcoin protocol is not encrypted message as it seerms to be, its a public and auditable protocol, the transaction file can be read by anyone. There is no profit or commercial activity in this experiment. This experiment can be done with all kind of files such as photos, climate images and any other files.
The network is an experimental work that requires authorization to run in your country. Satoshi.radio.br is not operating .
Technical doubts : According to some ham operators it is impossible to work with Yagi antennas and less than 1000W of power. This info is not true and you can find hundreds of examples on youtube and Internet. Below you can find some videos that inspired us on this quest.
Transaction Link: https://blockchain.coinmarketcap.com/tx/bitcoin/e9a2b9fbd3f8d9e95381bb41766e213b53eb908869b0c361adac4741f46b7e82
List of Radio Satellites:
WSJT and WSPR have Windows and Linux packages, and MAP65 and SimJT are Windows only. For further details about source code and operating systems, see the Program Development page.
WSJT-X ("Weak Signal Communication, by K1JT") offers specific digital protocols optimized for EME (moonbounce), meteor scatter, and ionospheric scatter, at VHF/UHF, as well as for LF, MF, and HF propagation. The program can decode fraction-of-a-second signals reflected from ionized meteor trails and steady signals more than 10 dB below the audible threshold. WSJT-X incorporates nearly all popular capabilities of programs WSJT and WSPR, while adding comprehensive rig control and many other features. Check the WSJT-X page and links therein for details about modes FT8, JT4, JT9, JT65, QRA64, ISCAT, MSK144, and WSPR.
WSJT is the original program, first released in 2001. Version 10 implements modes JTMS, FSK441, FSK315, ISCAT, JT6M, JT65, and JT4.
MAP65 implements a wideband receiver for JT65 signals, optimized for EME on the VHF/UHF bands. It can be used together with Linrad (by SM5BSZ) or with direct input from a soundcard or FUNcube Dongle. The program decodes all JT65 signals in a passband up to 90 kHz wide, producing a sorted band map of decoded callsigns. In a dual-polarization system, MAP65 optimally matches the linear polarization angle of each signal, thereby eliminating problems with Faraday rotation and spatial polarization offsets.
WSPR (pronounced "whisper") stands for "Weak Signal Propagation Reporter." This program is designed for sending and receiving low-power transmissions to test propagation paths on the MF and HF bands. Users with internet access can watch results in real time at WSPRnet. Version 2.11 of WSPR includes FMT, a package of command-line utilities that can help you make highly accurate frequency measurements without expensive laboratory equipment. The WSPR mode is now included in program WSJT-X.
SimJT generates JT65 and CW test signals with user-specified signal-to-noise ratio. It is useful for testing the JT65 decoder and the relative capabilities of these two modes.
©2001-2020 by Joe Taylor, K1JT ORIGINAL DOWNLOAD AT https://www.physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/K1JT/